Here you will find examples of relevant theoretical and practical literature on CAR methods and approaches.

Examples of CAR relevant literature with focus on diabetes

  • Bloch, P. et al (2014). Revitalizing the setting approach – supersettings for sustainable impact in community health promotion. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11:118.

  • Bradley, H. A. et al. (2007). Prevention of hypertension and diabetes in urban setting in south Africa: Participatory Action Research with community health workers. Ethnicity & Disease: 17.

  • Giachello, A. L. et al. (2003). Reducing Diabetes Health Disparities through Community-Based Participatory Action Research: The Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition. Public Health Reports: 118 (4) 309-323.

  • Grabowski, D. et al. (2017). Principled Promotion of Health: Implementing Five Guiding Health Promotion Principles for Research-Based Prevention and Management of Diabetes. Societies: 7(2).

  • Mendenhall, T. J. et al (2010). The Family Education Diabetes Series (FEDS): community-based participatory research with a midwestern American Indian community. Nursing Inquiry: 17 (4): 359-372.

  • St. John, J. A. et al (2013). Empowerment of Promotoras as Promotora-Researchers in the Comidas Saludables & Gente Sana en las Colonias del Sur de Tejas (Healthy Food and Healthy People in South Texas Colonias) Program. Journal of Primary Prevention: 34 (1-2): 41-57.

  • Yankelov, P. A. et al (2015). “Another Day in Paradise”: A Photovoice Journey of Rural Older Adults Living With Diabetes. Journal of Applied Gerontology: 34 (2): 199-218.


Examples of CAR relevant theories and references

Theories on Action Research (AR)

  • Reason, P & Bradbury, H. (2001). The Sage Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice. London: Sage.

  • Stringer, E. (1996). Action Research a Handbook for Practicitioners. Sage publications, CA: Thousand Oaks.

Theories on Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR)

  • Israel et al (1998). Review of community-based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annual Review of Public Health; 19, SciTech Premium Collection 173

  • Minkler, M. et al (2008). Promoting Healthy Public Policy through Community-Based Participatory Research: Ten Case Studies. PolicyLink

  • Minkler, M. & Wallerstein, N. (Eds.)(2008). Community-based participatory research for health: From processes to outcomes (2end.) San Francisco: Jossey-bass.

  • Wallerstein, N., & Duran, B. (2010). Community-based participatory research contributions to intervention research: The intersection of science and practice to improve health equity. America Journal of Public Health: 100 (1): 40-46.

  • Wallerstein, N., & Bernstein, E. (1988). Empowerment education: Freire’s ideas adapted to health education. Health Education Quaterly: 15 (4): 379-394.

Theories on Systemic Action Research (SAR)

  • Burns, D, and Worsley, S., (2015) Navigating Complexity in International Development, Rugby UK: Practical Action Publishing

  • Burns, D. (2014). Systemic action research: Changing system dynamics to support sustainable change. Action Research: 12 (1): 3-18.

  • Burns, D. (?) Participatory Systemic Inquiry. IDS Bulletin: 43 (3): 88-100.

  • Ison, R. (2010) ‘Systemic Action Research’ (cap. 267-281) in Systemic Practice: how to act in a climate-change world.

  • Ison, R. (2008). Systems Thinking and Practice for Action Research. In Handbook of action

    research (2nd Ed) (pp. 139–158). London, UK: Sage.

  • Vasstrøm, M., et al (2008).“Facilitating Agricultural Innovation and Learning through Systemic Action Research.” Innovation Systems and Rural Development. 27–2008: 101.